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Vinayak Sinha - June 2021 

RTEII: Vinayak Sinha   Full Article 2021

A new high-resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) road transport emission inventory for India of 74 speciated NMVOCs, CO, NOx, NH3, CH4, CO2, PM2.5 reveals massive overestimation of NOx and CO and missing nitromethane emissions by existing inventories


21 of 30 most polluted cities for particulate matter (PM2.5) are in India, yet the distribution, identity and emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from traffic, which are PM2.5 and ozone precursors, remain unknown. Here, we measured emission factors (EFs) of 74 VOCs from a range of Indian vehicle-technology and fuel types. When combined with 0.1 ° × 0.1 ° spatially resolved activity data for the year 2015, toluene (137 ± 39 Gg yr1), isopentane (111 ± 38 Ggyr−1), and acetaldehyde(41 ± 6 Ggyr−1) were top 3-VOC emissions. Petrol-2-wheelers and LPG-3-wheelers emitted the highest VOCs (EFs> 50 gVOC/L) and had highest secondary pollutant formation potential, so their replacement with electric vehicles would improve air quality. EDGARv4.3.2 and REASv.2.1 emission inventories overestimated total road sector emitted VOCs due to obsolete EFs and activity data, in particular over-estimating ethene, propene, ethyl benzene, 2,2- dimethyl butaneCO, NOx while significantly under-estimating acetaldehyde. Nitromethane emissions were missing from previous inventories and with isocyanic acid and benzene contributed significantly to toxic emissions (summed total ~41 ± 4 Ggyr−1). Knowledge of key VOCs emitted from the world's third largest road-network provides critical new data for mitigating secondary pollutant formation over India and will enable more accurate modelling of atmospheric composition over South Asia.

Stubble Burning – India – VOCs – Vinayak Sinha - June 2021

" Gridded 1 km × 1 km emission inventory for paddy stubble burning emissions over north-west India constrained by measured emission factors of 77 VOCs and district-wise crop yield data"

• This is the first 1 km × 1 km gridded emission paddy residue burning emission inventory of 77 speciated VOCs and criteria air pollutants from the region

• Emissions of paddy stubble burning were 20 times greater than traffic and waste burning sources during October-November (Table 3 of the paper)

• Furaldehyde was a major new emission that was completely missing from existing inventories.

• Emission factors were measured for both flaming and smoldering stage fires for 77 VOCs from paddy fire smoke 

Here is a link to freely download the paper:

Also provided are the EI data in the supplement district-wise for easy access to readers.

Dr. Vinayak Sinha

Associate Professor 

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) , Mohali,
Sector 81, S A S Nagar, Manauli PO Punjab 140306